- Please read the whole post before you start. This will help you avoid a lock-out
Generating a secure key pair
SSH keys use asymmetric cryptographic algorithms that generate a pair of separate keys (a key pair). A private and a public key.
We are using the command
ssh-keygen to generate our secure key pair. There are 3 common algorithms to choose from.
We are going to create a private and public key with the name
nameofthekey in the
.ssh directory of the current user. You should choose a expressive name, which makes it easier to work with multiple keys. Please make sure that the directory
Important: Please do use a secure password for the key generation.
- RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman)
ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -f ~/.ssh/nameofthekey
- ECDSA (Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm)
ssh-keygen -t ecdsa -b 521 -f key1 ~/.ssh/nameofthekey
- EdDSA ed25519:
ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -f ~/.ssh/nameofthekey
ssh-keygen# can be run as a standard user, man ssh-keygen for more information
-t [dsa | ecdsa | ecdsa-sk | ed25519 | ed25519-sk | rsa]# choose Algorithm
-b bits# number of bits to use
-f /path/and/name-of-keypair# choose a name for the keys
ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -f ~/.ssh/nameofthekey Generating public/private rsa key pair. Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): Enter same passphrase again: Your identification has been saved in name Your public key has been saved in name.pub The key fingerprint is: SHA256:8KkCBz2GFXusy6URXF4Z/8xVl+6dFhYV0MoDtqIqBfA kuser@pleasejustwork The key's randomart image is: +---[RSA 4096]----+ | o.. oo .o.B| | . = = ... o =.| | = B = o + + .| | E = o o = = + | | . = . S . + + +| | + * o +.| | * o . | | . o | | . | +----[SHA256]-----+
This would give us 2 files: private key
nameofthekey, and public key
nameofthekey.pub - public key
ssh-rsa ktLfCNsABzCw9wE4U3JS8mn1t8jw2Q01wRvCaexpuE2adZYxgw4sNJfBOp3SmLEYeF3rcP1u9ffb2J8FOqFWj3egwjVvVrlDHwi6Jr1aTxOmNlGtNHfJiKuJxD3HxPFAuSImsR5IZF6Bki0LxQGxM4jx8NgDFQ5BWO0tJ0pNzSJdXOLwW0jqbdqdEHELnYZLmll6oeJ9j1LZx6GY5vjYxzeCxZTrHoFQPE2vdYsx7ajIKDzQpNdM9zhYRO10OM kuser@pleasejustwork
nameofthekey - private, password protected
-----BEGIN OPENSSH PRIVATE KEY----- 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 -----END OPENSSH PRIVATE KEY-----
The correct permissions on the client
It is important to have the correct permissions for your key. For 2 reasons: restrict the access of other users, and some servers require it, when the 'StrictModes' is enabled. Later more.
sudo chmod 700 ~/.ssh sudo chmod 644 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys sudo chmod 644 ~/.ssh/known_hosts sudo chmod 644 ~/.ssh/config sudo chmod 600 ~/.ssh/nameofthekey # private key sudo chmod 644 ~/.ssh/nameofthekey.pub # public key
Get your public key on the server
You need access to the destination server in one way or another to add the newly generated public key. There are multiple ways.
In the end, the public key must be added to the
~/.ssh/authorized_keys file. If it does not exist, it must be created. There can be multiple public keys in this file - one line per key, and there can be multiple
authorized_keys, IF it is configured on the server.
No direct access to the server
Ask someone with access to add your public key to the
Direct access via ssh and password auth
You most likely already have access to the server via ssh and normal password authentication. There are now multiple ways to add your public key to the server.
- Simply use
ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/nameofthekey.pub remote-user@remote-server
- This does everything for you, and adds your public key to the
authorized_keysfile on the remote machine.
Different way would be to copy the public key to the remote machine via
rsync, or something different, and redirect
>> it to
~/.ssh/authorized_keys. Another way would be to connect to the server, and copy-paste the content of the public key to
~/.ssh/authorized_keys. Remember, if the path or file does not exist, just create it.
In the end, your chosen public key must be in the file
~/.ssh/authorized_keys before you should continue.
Configuration of the ssh server
Important: Some tips on how to work on the configuration file on the remote machine.
- do a backup of the configuration file before you do any changes!
- create 2 ssh sessions - 1 for working and testing, the other one as a backup.
- reload the config of the ssh server, rather than restarting the service. This does not kill the backup session.
- test the public key authentication before you turn off password authentication
We now have to edit the ssh server config file on the remote machine:
/etc/ssh/sshd_config or in the config directory
/etc/ssh/sshd_conf.d. It depends on your setup.
Enabling public key authentication on the server
- Enable public key authentication in the config file:
- Now, reload the config of the ssh server. Assuming you are using
sudo systemctl reload sshd
- Before we continue, please do try to connect to the remote machine with your ssh key:
ssh -i ~/.ssh/nameofthekey remote-user@remote-server# choose the private key!
- enter the password for your private key, and you should be connected.
Enable the strict mode
- Open the
sshd_configfile and add:
- this makes sure, that the permissions are correct on the client side. You won't be able to connect to the server, if the permissions are not correct!
- Now, reload the config of the ssh server:
sudo systemctl reload sshd
Important: Please test the connection once more!
If you successfully connected to the remote machine, you can proceed to turn off password authentication.
Disable password authentication
Last chance: make sure that you have tested the public key authentication, and / or have another option to access the machine.
- Open the
sshd_configfile and change one option:
This will disable the possibility to authenticate with a password, but you should still be able to log in with your public key, after reloading the config.
- Reload the config of the ssh server:
sudo systemctl reload sshd
This should be it!
- Some debugging options on client:
ssh -vvv -i ~/.ssh/nameofthekey remote-user@remote-server
- Some debugging options on server:
sudo journalctl -u ssh
sudo grep ip.of.your.machine /var/log/auth.log
- You can change the log level of the server by editing the config file:
LogLevel INFO# default
LogLevel DEBUG# enable DEBUG mode
Don't forget to turn it off again before it fills up your storage.
Manage private key identities with an agent
Nobody wants to enter their password for the private key every time they want to connect to a server. By using
ssh-add - the OpenSSH auth agent - you can add your private key once for the session, and do not have to enter your private key password every time.
- Check for identities:
- Add private key identity:
ssh-add ~/.ssh/nameofthekey# choose the private key and enter the password
- Remove all identities:
- If you run into:
Could not open a connection to your authentication agent.
`eval ssh-agent` and
exec ssh-agent bash. This restarts the agent and sets the correct environment variables from my understanding.
E-Mail hello @itta vern. com
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